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Barossa Gas Project: Learn more

Acoustic positioning systems – A system that is used to track and navigate underwater vehicles by means of acoustic distance.

ALARP – As Low As Reasonably Practicable. It must be possible to demonstrate that the cost involved in reducing the risk further would be grossly disproportionate to the benefit gained.

AMP – Australian Marine Park

Anthropogenic disturbance – The potential threat to ecological areas due to human activity.

Automatic identification systems – A device which is used to send and receive identifying information to assist effective navigation of vessels.

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) – An uncrewed underwater vehicle. AUVs can be used for underwater survey missions such as detecting and mapping the seabed.

Benthic invertebrates – Organisms that live on the bottom of the seabed.

Biologically important area (BIA) – Biologically important areas (BIAs) are spatially defined areas where aggregations of individuals of a species are known to display biologically important behaviour such as breeding, foraging, resting or migration.

Christmas Tree – Each well is completed with a piece of equipment that acts like a tap, controlling pressure and flow over the lifespan of the well. Safety valves enable us to ‘turn off’ the reservoir in the event of any risk or mechanical failure.

DPD – Darwin Pipeline Duplication – The DPD connects the GEP to Darwin LNG. This is a proposed new pipeline designed to be laid adjacent to the existing Bayu-Undan to Darwin pipeline. The DPD is proposed to enable preservation of the Bayu-Undan pipeline for future uses
such as carbon capture and storage (CCS).

Dynamic Positioning Systems (DP) – A control system that uses thrusters to maintain and control a vessel’s position.

Environment that may be affected (EMBA) – A spatially defined area of the environment that may be affected by an activity.

An EMBA is defined by overlaying hundreds of individual hypothetical spill model simulations into a single map using the low threshold exposure values (which can equate to approximately 1 millilitre of hydrocarbon per 1000 litres of sea water) to identify the full geographical extent of the environment that might be contacted by hydrocarbons. This also provides the basis for assessing the range of potential socio-economic risks and establishes a planning area for scientific monitoring.

The entirety of an EMBA is not considered to be representative of biological impact but is used for identifying the full geographical extent of the environment that could potentially be affected (including where the effect may not constitute a significant impact).

EP – Environment Plan – An EP is prepared to demonstrate that the environmental risks and impacts of an offshore petroleum are assessed and managed to as low as reasonably practicable and an acceptable level. An EP is assessed by the regulator (NOPSEMA) and must be accepted before an activity can commence.

Geophysical Survey – Surveys completed to understand the geological properties of the seabed and subsurface.

Flood, clean, gauge and pressure testing (FCGT) – A set of tests often undertaken during pre-commissioning activities.

Floating production storage and offloading vessel (FPSO) – A floating vessel for the production, processing of hydrocarbons, and the storage of condensate (in the context of the Barossa Project).

Flowline – A pipeline that carries the gas and condensate products from producing wells to a gas gathering station.

Flowline End Termination connections (FLET) – Subsea hardware installed at the end of flowlines to enable ROV operated functions, connection of other subsea infrastructure, venting and pressure control.

GEP – Gas Export Pipeline – The GEP is a pipeline that delivers the dry gas from the FPSO to Darwin LNG (via the DPD)

Intermediate bulk containers (IBC) – An industrial-grade container used to handle, transport and store liquids and solids.

Invasive marine species (IMS) – Marine flora and fauna that have been introduced into a region that is beyond their natural range but have the ability to survive, and possibly thrive.

Key ecological feature (KEF) – Elements of a marine environment that are considered to be of regional importance for either the region’s biodiversity or ecosystem function and integrity.

LNG – Liquified Natural Gas – Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

Long baseline (LBL) – Long baseline acoustic positioning system. LBL systems are unique in that they use networks of sea-floor deployed baseline transponders as reference points for navigation and position.

Manifold – A production manifold is a subsea structure containing valves and pipework designed to commingle and direct produced fluids from multiple wells into one or more flowlines.

MARPOL – The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

Marine diesel oil (MDO) – A type of fuel used to power vessel engines.

Mooring – A structure to which a sea vessel may be secured.

Mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) – A type of drilling unit used for operations in deep water

Moderate exposure value area (MEVA) – Thresholds used to inform environmental assessment, identify potential environmental consequences, and aid in developing response plans.

Monoethylene glycol (MEG) – A hydrate inhibitor used to reduce the risk of hydrate formation in infrastructure that could cause a blockage.

Mooring suction anchor – Long steel cylinder or pile with a top cap and valve assembly. The valve assembly facilitates the removal of water from inside the cylinder to aid embedment during installation. The anchor is connected via chain / wire to the STP buoy and FPSO to maintain position of the FPSO.

Net Environmental Benefits Assessment (NEBA) – A framework to assess the adverse effects of a hydrocarbon spill response against the benefits and gains.

NOPSEMA – National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority

Oil pollution emergency plan (OPEP) – A plan which outlines the arrangements and process used to effectively respond and manage an emergency hydrocarbon spill.

Operational area – The area within which all planned activities under an environment plan will occur.

Petroleum safety zone (PSZ) – A requirement under petroleum legislation to implement zones that limit access by unauthorized vessels so as to maintain the integrity of petroleum infrastructure.

PLET – Pipeline End Termination – Subsea hardware installed at the end of pipelines to enable ROV operated functions, connection of other subsea infrastructure, venting and pressure control.

Polypropylene (PP) – A type of polymer that is the second-most widely produced commodity plastic after polyethylene and is commonly used in municipal potable water supply and storage due to its recognised safety. PP is made from titanium dioxide (non-toxic material) and has a high tensile strength, as well as chemical (corrosion) and heat resistant properties. It is used as insulation and corrosion protection on the subsea flowlines.

Pre-commissioning activities – A series of tests carried out to verify the integrity and capacity of the infrastructure and connections, as well as preserve installed equipment.

Pre-lay survey – A preliminary assessment which identifies debris, seabed features and obstructions along potential flowline or umbilical routes or areas where infrastructure it to be installed.

Preservation phase / period – The interim period between completing the pre-commissioning activities and commencing activities covered under the Production Operations EP.

Production manifold foundation – Steel structures that provide long-term support for manifolds designed to suit local geotechnical properties.

Risers – Flexible pipes that connect the flowlines to the FPSO and cater for FPSO movement.

Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) – Uncrewed vehicles (robots) which are controlled remotely by human operators and are used to support installation activities.

Side-scan sonar (SSS) – Side scan sonar is a survey technology which works by emitting a narrow beam of sound waves subsea which reflect off the seafloor and objects on it, allowing the area to be mapped or surveyed.

Spools – Fabricated pipework that is used to connect different pieces of subsea infrastructure

Standard maritime notifications – The means by which other marine users are informed of activity, and relevant cautionary or exclusion zones.

Submerged Turret Production (STP) – A turret mooring system that transfers oil, water, gas, signals, and power between the FPSO and subsea infrastructure.

Subsea Infrastructure – Includes the following equipment: Subsea Umbilicals, Risers, Flowlines, Manifolds, Well Jumpers, Flying Leads and FPSO Moorings.

SURF – Subsea Umbilicals, Risers and Flowlines – a term used as a general description of the subsea infrastructure required to gather gas and condensate from the production wells and deliver these products to the FPSO for processing. A SURF campaign includes the installation and testing of this equipment.

SURF EP – Barossa Subsea Infrastructure Installation EP.

Transponders – A wireless communication device that picks up and automatically responds to an incoming signal.

Ultra-short baseline (USBL) – USBL is a technology used in underwater navigation to locate and track objects or vessels. It works by using sound waves to typically communicate between two devices such as a vessel and ROV.

Umbilical Termination Assembly (UTA) – Structures that are mounted at the end of an umbilical which allow connection of communications, electrical and hydraulic supply lines to other subsea infrastructure

Umbilicals – Bundles of cables and tubing that allow for communication and control of subsea infrastructure from the FPSO via electrical, fibre optic or hydraulic means.

Well jumpers – A specific type of spool or pipe that connect the subsea wells to the production manifolds.